What are root canals? Why do root canals get involved? What is the process of the diseases related to root canals?

Root canal is a space inside the tooth, which extends from inside crown on top to end of the root. This is usually occupied by nerves, blood vessels and cells in their health situation. Around this living tissue, the hard structure of the tooth consists of dentin and enamel. While the enamel is the hardest tissue in the whole body, the dentin is porous, which makes it weak and more permeable to oral environment if it is exposed to it. The enamel can have anatomical defects, cracks and decay, which act as routes for microbes to enter the porous dentin and affect the root canals either directly or indirectly. When the dentin is affected by microbial invasion, the tissue inside the root canal will be inflamed or even infected. Based on the degree of involvement, there might be mild, moderate and severe dental symptoms including sensitivity to hot and cold, pain and swelling inside or outside of the mouth.